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famous german americans

German-Americans are America’s largest single ethnic group (if you divide Hispanics into Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans, etc). In German parochial schools, the children spoke English among themselves, though some of their classes were in German. [154] German-speaking taverns, beer gardens and saloons were all shut down by prohibition; those that reopened in 1933 spoke English. German Americans were pioneers and dominated beer brewing for much of American history, beginning with breweries founded in the 19th century by German immigrants August Schell (August Schell Brewing Company), Christian Moerlein (Christian Moerlein Brewing Co.), Eberhard Anheuser and Adolphus Busch (Anheuser-Busch, currently part of AB InBev), Adolph Coors (Molson Coors Brewing Company), Frederick Miller (Miller Brewing Company), Frederick Pabst (Pabst Brewing Company), Bernhard Stroh (Stroh Brewery Company) and Joseph Schlitz (Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company).[183]. [58], Sentiment among German Americans was largely anti-slavery, especially among Forty-Eighters. The latter beckoned as destinations when the cost of being German-American rose too high". [21], The first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer. Most are able to understand Standard German in addition to their dialect. Anne Frank. Ed.. Werner Sollors. Their ancestors had come from all over the German-speaking world, invited by Catherine the Great in 1762 and 1763 to settle and introduce more advanced German agriculture methods to rural Russia. About 250,000 German Jews had arrived by the 1870s, and they sponsored reform synagogues in many small cities across the country. The largest Lutheran denominations in the U.S. today—the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod—are all descended from churches started by German immigrants among others. [151] She goes on to state that "The cultural influences were so strong, in fact, that the Chicago Tribune in 1893 declared Fort Wayne a 'most German town'. They typically were local and regional merchants selling clothing; others were livestock dealers, agricultural commodity traders, bankers, and operators of local businesses. In Linn & McLelland (eds). Dubuque and Davenport, Iowa had even larger proportions, as did Omaha, Nebraska, where the proportion of German Americans was 57% in 1910. They tolerated slavery (although few were rich enough to own a slave). National Congress (DANK), German-American The southern central part of North Dakota was known as "the German-Russian triangle". Vorbilder, Deutsche Some Danube Swabians, for instance, ethnic Germans who had maintained language and customs after settlement in Hungary, later Yugoslavia (now Serbia), immigrated to the U.S. after the war. By 1775, Germans constituted about one-third of the population of the state. Between 1742 and 1753, roughly 1,000 Germans settled in Broad Bay, Massachusetts (now Waldoboro, Maine). [67], Relatively few German Americans held office, but the men voted once they became citizens. They formed Reform synagogues[47] and sponsored numerous local and national philanthropic organizations, such as B'nai B'rith. ], Today, the descendants of those early German immigrants number nearly 43 million, The German Language in the [161]:273 Kazal goes on to state "The burden of "enemy" status made those pressures far greater for Germans than for other European ethnic groups. Census Bureau. Notable among many German-Americans who have shaped our military to meet later challenges were John J. Pershing, whose ancestral family name was Pfoerschin, and Dwight D. Eisenhower, a descendant of Hans Nikolas Eisenhauer. "[148]:109 Holli states that "Being on the wrong side in two wars had a devastating and long-term negative impact on the public celebration of German-American ethnicity". In North Carolina, German Moravians living around Bethlehem, Pennsylvania purchased nearly 100,000 acres (400 km2) from Lord Granville (one of the British Lords Proprietor) in the Piedmont of North Carolina in 1753. While they needed profits to stay in operation, they used profits as a tool "to maintain continuity of the family". In Germany East Friesland was often a topic of ridicule regarding backward rustics, but editor Leupke Hündling shrewdly combined stories of proud memories of Ostfriesland. [10][11][12], German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States,[13] introduced the Christmas tree tradition,[14][15] and introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America.[16]. "Irish American" had come to mean Irish Catholic; the vast majority of Irish Americans subscribed to some form of Irish nationalism conflated with American patriotism; and Irish-American voters were overwhelmingly Democrats. United States | German-American Relations. BallinStadt, More than 200,000 native-born Germans, along with another 250,000 1st-generation German-Americans, served in the Union Army, notably from New York, Wisconsin, and Ohio.Only a few hundred served in the Confederacy, being primarily 3rd- and 4th-generation descended from those who had … [1], Of the four major US regions, German was the most-reported ancestry in the Midwest, second in the West, and third in both the Northeast and the South. The more conservative Lutherans comprised the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. [151] Film critic Roger Ebert wrote how "I could hear the pain in my German-American father's voice as he recalled being yanked out of Lutheran school during World War I and forbidden by his immigrant parents ever to speak German again". 06 February 1912 . Faust, page 523. They included professionals, journalists, and politicians. By standard statistical measurement, the Germans were the largest immigrant group. 3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people from the former Yugoslavia. [84], American wartime propaganda depicted the bloodthirsty German "Hun" soldier as an enemy of civilization, with his eyes on America from across the Atlantic. Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Uprooted or Transplanted? By 1917, almost all schools taught in English, but courses in German were common in areas with large German populations. The editor enlisted a network of local correspondents. When prohibition was on the ballot, the Germans voted solidly against it. Texas had about 20,000 German Americans in the 1850s. From music have come - beside the piano- and organ-makers, Steinway, Knabe, and Wurlitzer -- Leopold and Walter Damrosch, Bruno Walter, John Philip Sousa, Oscar Hammerstein, Paul Hindemith, Arnold Schoenberg, and Kurt Weill. His breakthrough was the role called "Abdul" in the movie Knockin' on Heaven's Door (1997). Such groups escaped the fury of "100 percent Americanism" during the war, in part because of their obvious stake in the defeat of the Central Powers". The 1920s and 1930s brought English language popular culture via movies and radio that drowned out the few surviving German language venues.[161]. To claim German nationality had become too painful an experience". [136] Catholic Germans started immigrating in large numbers in the mid to latter 19th century, spurred in particular by the Kulturkampf. States with the highest proportions of German Americans tend to be those of the upper Midwest, including Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and the Dakotas; all at over 30%. [147] As Melvin G. Holli puts it, "Public expression of German ethnicity is nowhere proportionate to the number of German Americans in the nation's population. [54], Texas attracted many Germans who entered through Galveston and Indianola, both those who came to farm, and later immigrants who more rapidly took industrial jobs in cities such as Houston. The visual arts have also benefited from German genius. Bye Bayern, Gruess Gott Amerika, Schöne Germania was nervous about black suffrage in 1868, fearing that blacks would support puritanical laws, especially regarding the prohibition of beer gardens on Sundays. They are mostly professionals and academics who have come for professional reasons. The Old Order Amish and a majority of the Old Order Mennonites still speak dialects of German, including Pennsylvania German, informally known as Pennsylvania Dutch. Centuries of Germans in America, German A smaller number moved farther west, finding employment as ranchers and cowboys. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, and pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. They differed in dialect, customs, and physical features. Americans: More than Bratwurst and Beer, Germans To this stigma, the Third Reich added the lasting one of the Holocaust. [102] According to the 2005 American Community Survey, 50 million Americans have German ancestry. Frankfurters (or "wieners", originating from Frankfurt am Main and Vienna, respectively), hamburgers, bratwurst, sauerkraut, and strudel are common dishes. "Japanese Americans, of course, suffered far more during the Second World War",[161]:273 but until at least the 1950s, the pressure on Japanese Americans "ran toward exclusion from, rather than inclusion in, the nation". [116], The Liederkranz, a German-American music society, played an important role in the integration of the German community into the life of Louisville, Kentucky. [61] The Germans were the largest immigrant group to participate in the Civil War; over 176,000 U.S. soldiers were born in Germany. They were actively recruited by James Oglethorpe and quickly distinguished themselves through improved farming, advanced tabby (cement)-construction, and leading joint Lutheran-Anglican-Reformed religious services for the colonists. [46] They spread across the North and South (and California, where Levi Strauss arrived in 1853). The trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, Germantown (Philadelphia), founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. Germans from Russia were the most traditional of German-speaking arrivals. (1969), Birte Pfleger, "'Miserable Germans' and Fries's Rebellion: Language, Ethnicity, and Citizenship in the Early Republic,", Timothy J. Kloberdanz, "Symbols of German-Russian Ethnic Identity on the Northern Plains.". When Raster died the Chicago Tribune published an article regarding his service as a correspondent for America to the German states saying, "His writings during and after the Civil War did more to create understanding and appreciation of the American situation in Germany and to float U.S. bonds in Europe than the combined efforts of all the U.S. ministers and consuls. [123][124] For example, during the latter half of the 19th century, at least 176 different German-language publications began operations in the city of Cincinnati alone. Auswandererhaus, Bremerhaven, German Indeed, some historians have depicted the following decade as one when immigrants transcended local or regional homeland affiliations to craft or further consolidate national identities as Poles, Czechs, and Italians. [168][d], Despite the remarkable level of language assimilation reached by German Americans, distinct German usage survived well into the mid/late-20th century in some places. About 100,000 immigrated by 1900, settling primarily in the Dakotas, Kansas and Nebraska. This drop far exceeds the natural mortality rate or the number who might be expected to move. "German Minorities in World War. Nebraska banned instruction in any language except English, but the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the ban illegal in 1923 (Meyer v. A small minority came out for Germany, such as H. L. Mencken. [62] A popular Union commander among Germans, Major General Franz Sigel was the highest-ranking German officer in the Union Army, with many German immigrants claiming to enlist to "fight mit Sigel". Who is the most famous person of German descent? The National Turnerbund, the head organization of the Turnvereine, started drilling members as in militia units in 1854. American Heritage Foundation - Resources & Links, German German Americans (German: Deutschamerikaner, pronounced [ˈdɔʏ̯tʃʔameʁiˌkaːnɐ]) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. [83] The response of German Americans to these tactics was often to "Americanize" names (e.g., Schmidt to Smith, Müller to Miller) and limit the use of the German language in public places, especially churches. A few German Jews came in the colonial era. It affected the state's many German-language private schools (and some Norwegian schools), and was bitterly resented by German American communities. Kirsten Dunst. But one searches in vain for quintessentially German-American characters or melodramas patterned after German-American experiences. [45] Notable Forty-Eighter Hermann Raster wrote passionately against slavery and was very pro-Lincoln. Pennsylvania-German-built Conestoga wagons carried the pioneers westward, some armed with "Kentucky rifles," also made in Pennsylvania by Germans. American Biographies, German-American Jahrhundert, Deutsches Some public opinion surveys conducted before the war showed German Americans were even more highly regarded than immigrants from the mother culture, England". Quoting from an 1869 ethnicity study by B. [150] Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Cleveland and other cities "had what we now call two-way immersion programs: school taught half in German, half in English". "Problems in Historiography: The Americanization of German Ethnics." Annette R. Hofmann, "Between Ethnic Separation and Assimilation: German Immigrants and Their Athletic Endeavours in Their New American Home Country". [188], Skat, the most popular card game in Germany, is also played in areas of the United States with large German American populations, such as Wisconsin and Texas.[104]. Languages Spoken at Home: 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007", "Detailed Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for Persons 5 Years and Over --50 Languages with Greatest Number of Speakers: United States 1990", "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home by English-Speaking Ability for the Population 5 Years and Over: 2011", "Mother Tongue of the Foreign-Born Population: 1910 to 1940, 1960, and 1970", "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: the Case of an Over-confident Minority", U.S. State Department, "German Language in the U.S", "German American Ethnic and Cultural Identity from 1890 Onward", "WWI altered the German accent of Allen County", "I could hear the pain in my German-American father's voice", "What Happens After English is Declared the Official Language of the United States? [51], A particularly attractive destination was Milwaukee, and came to be known as "the German Athens". In 1917–18, after the American entry into World War I on the side of the Allies, nearly all German language instruction ended, as did most German-language church services. Because the language used in the classroom was German, the law meant the teachers would have to be replaced with bilingual teachers, and in most cases shut down. They strongly distrusted moralistic crusaders, whom they called "Puritans", including the temperance reformers and many Populists. Immigrants from Germany in the mid-to-late-19th century brought many different religions with them. Two examples suffice to illustrate this point: when one surveys the popular television scene of the past decade, one hears Yiddish humor done by comedians; one sees Polish, Greek, and East European detective heroes; Italian-Americans in situation comedies; and blacks such as the Jeffersons and Huxtables. Black Hawk 1767-1838. [85] About 25,000 people became paying members of the pro-Nazi German American Bund during the years before the war. Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society. An audience of 8,000 that attended a performance in 1877 demonstrated that the Germans were an accepted part of Louisville life. [176] All Hutterites speak Hutterite German and many "Russian" Mennonites speak Plautdietsch, a German dialect coming originally from the area around Danzig. [148]:106 He states that, after the war, German ethnicity "would never regain its prewar public acclaim, its larger-than-life public presence, with its symbols, rituals, and, above all, its large numbers of people who took pride in their Teutonic ancestry and enjoyed the role of Uncle Sam's favored adopted son". Despite the loss of their language, the ethnic group remains distinct, and has left a lasting impression on the American West. The influence of German cuisine is seen in the cuisine of the United States throughout the country, especially regarding pastries, meats and sausages, and above all, beer. In journalism, Thomas Nast, the German-born cartoonist who created the popular images of Uncle Sam and Santa Claus and gave us the donkey and elephant symbols for our major political parties, Rudolf Dirks, creator of the beloved "Katzenjammer Kids", Charles Schulz of "Peanuts" fame, Adolph Ochs, H. L. Mencken, and Walter Lippman. The rise of Nazism, as Luebke notes, 'transformed German ethnicity in America into a source of social and psychological discomfort, if not distress. [190], There have been three presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D. Eisenhower (original family name Eisenhauer and maternal side is also German/Swiss), Herbert Hoover (original family name Huber), and Donald Trump (whose paternal grandparents were immigrants from the Palatinate region of Germany). [63], Although only one in four Germans fought in all-German regiments, they created the public image of the German soldier. And American architecture has been enormously influenced by German emigres Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe. For German Americans, religion and party politics were sources of division rather than of unity". The most famous was the Nobel Prize winner Albert Einstein. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch).[34][35]. The German Catholics and Lutherans each operated large networks of parochial schools in the state. January 2021. Famous German Women. One of the largest is the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City, held every third Saturday in September. Ellis, M. and P. Panayi. They were attracted to the area through pamphlets such as J. Hanno Deiler's "Louisiana: A Home for German Settlers".[29]. [18][19] They generally opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I. The Mississippi Company settled thousands of German pioneers in French Louisiana during 1721. (MA thesis, Mankato State University, 2013). Others, including Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Wernher von Braun, Linus Pauling, John Peter Zenger, John Steinbeck, Kurt Vonnegut, Joseph Weizenbaum set intellectual landmarks while Neil Armstrong was the first human to land on the moon. American Cultural Center, German They included peasant farmers and intellectuals; Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and atheists; Prussians, Saxons, and Hessians; abolitionists and slave owners; farmers and townsfolk; frugal, honest folk and ax murderers. Many German Americans have played a prominent role in American industry and business, including Henry J. Heinz (H. J. Heinz Company), Frank Seiberling (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company), Walt Disney (Disney), John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil), William Boeing (The Boeing Company and United Airlines), Walter Chrysler (Chrysler Corporation), Frederick and August Duesenberg (Duesenberg Automobile Corporation), Studebaker brothers (Studebaker Automobile Corporation), George Westinghouse (Westinghouse Electric Corporation), Levi Strauss (Levi Strauss & Co.), Charles Guth (PepsiCo Inc.), Bill Gates (Microsoft Corporation), Jawed Karim (YouTube), Elon Musk (SolarCity, SpaceX and Tesla Motors), James L. Kraft (Kraft Foods Inc.), Henry E. Steinway (Steinway & Sons), Charles Pfizer (Pfizer, Inc.), John Jacob Astor (Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts), Conrad Hilton (Hilton Hotels & Resorts), Guggenheim family (Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation), (Guggenheim Partners), Marcus Goldman and Samuel Sachs (The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.), Lehman Brothers (Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.), Charles Diebold (Diebold Nixdorf), Bernard Kroger (Kroger), Carl Laemmle (Universal Studios), Marcus Loew (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc.), Harry Cohn (Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.), Herman Hollerith (International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)), Steve Jobs (Apple Inc.),[189] Michael Dell (Dell Inc.), Eric Schmidt (Google Inc. and Alphabet Inc.), Peter Thiel (PayPal Inc.), Adolph Simon Ochs and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (The New York Times), Charles Bergstresser (The Wall Street Journal), Al Neuharth (USA Today), Eugene Meyer (The Washington Post) etc. These statistics led Burnell ... to conclude that: "No other North American ethnic group, past or present, has attempted so forcefully to officially conceal their ... ethnic origins. Between 1820 and 1870, more than seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. A steady influx of German-born conductors, including Arthur Nikisch and Karl Muck, spurred the reception of German music in the United States, while German musicians seized on Victorian Americans' growing concern with 'emotion'. The achievements and contributions of German-Americans have had a profound effect on making the United States the country it is today. No other large immigrant group was subjected to such strong, sustained pressure to abandon its ethnic identity for an American one. She was born on April 30, 1982 in Point Pleasant, New Jersey, to parents Inez (née Rupprecht), who owned an art gallery, and Klaus Dunst, a medical services executive. Another group of German-speakers can be found in the Amana Colonies in Iowa; according to the website Statistical Atlas, all the residents of East Amana speak German at home, and only 67.7% can speak English "very well". "From emigration to immigration: The German experience in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Germans who settled Texas were diverse in many ways. "Handing down the farm: Values, strategies, and outcomes in inheritance practices among rural German Americans", Guenther, Karen. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Turner movement offered exercise and sports programs, while also providing a social haven for the thousands of new German immigrants arriving in the United States each year. The oldest extant brewery in the United States is D. G. Yuengling & Son of Pottsville, Pennsylvania (approximately 80 miles northwest of Philadelphia), founded in 1829 by an immigrant from Aldingen in what is today Baden-Württemberg; the brewery's flagship product remains a 19th-century German-style amber lager. If you're looking for some of the standouts in German foods, look no further. They supported the Liberal Republican party led by Benjamin Gratz Brown for governor in 1870 and Horace Greeley for president in 1872.[69]. Building Communities - Max Kade Institute", "Immigration through New Orleans: A Comment", "Germans from Russia Heritage Collection", "Germans American History in San Francisco", "North Dakota, With German Roots, Adopts Spanish as Second Language", Languages in East Amana, Iowa (Unincorporated Place) - Statistical Atlas, "Outstanding German Scientists Being Brought to U.S.", Yuengling of Pottsville: America's Oldest Brewery, "About Oktoberfest - Oktoberfest Zinzinnati", "Rating the Top Baseball Players of All Time", https://www.trumanlibrary.gov/genealogy/index.php?m=g_essay, "Ancestral background of presidents of the United States", German Americans in the Civil War § Further reading, The German-Americans: An Ethnic Experience, German-Americans between New and Old Fatherland, 1870–1914, Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present, The Location of German Immigrants in the Middle West, "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: The Case of an Over-confident Minority, Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains, "List of Newspapers and Periodicals Printed Wholly or in Part in Languages Other Than English: German", German Immigrant Culture in America: Syllabus (1998). 'Deutschtum' in the United States disintegrated after 1918.[113]. Other Germanic language variants for "deutsch/deitsch/dutch" are: Dutch "Duits" and "Diets", Yiddish "daytsh", Danish/Norwegian "tysk", or Swedish "tyska." The war brought about strong feelings of patriotism for German-Americans who by know … American Teaching Resources and Units, German Proud as they were of 'Deutschthum', or the sum of Germanness, it became increasingly vague. The town, Berlin, Michigan, was changed to Marne, Michigan (honoring those who fought in the Battle of Marne). 1. Their communities showed smaller average farm size, greater equality, less absentee ownership and greater geographic persistence. Bronner, Simon J. and Joshua R. Brown, eds. Peterson himself seems not to fully agree with this, stating "Most community studies have examined very large, heterogeneous German-American urban populations that assimilated relatively quickly or, less commonly, large, homogeneous rural ones that did not. It connected the 20,000 immigrants from East Friesland (Ostfriesland), Germany, to each other across the Midwest, and to their old homeland. [172][173] Homer Rudolf, a man from North Dakota of German Russian descent, stated in 2004 that his maternal grandmother, who died in 1980 at the age of 90, "did not learn English". [1], Estimated population by state according to the 2018 American Community Survey. Eva Braun. German Americans: An Ethnic Experience, German [76][77] There was also some Anti-German hysteria like the killing of Paster Edmund Kayser. This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 18:02. Halle Berry's mother is of English and German descent. Immigration continued in very large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Henry Muhlenberg was especially influential on the Patriot side. And from the theatre a succession of gifted playwrights, directors and performers, among them Bertolt Brecht, Ernst Lubitsch, Eric von Stroheim, Fritz Lang, Otto Preminger, Billy Wilder, and the inimitable Marlene Dietrich. German-American Heritage Museum of the USA, Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis, The Germantown Historical Society (Philadelphia), The German Society of Pennsylvania (oldest German Society in the U.S.), Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center, German Traces NYC from the Goethe-Institut, Interactive German-History Map of Pittsburgh, Some German Contributions to Wisconsin Life, Births of U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity, Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_Americans&oldid=1000570880, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from August 2018, Short description is different from Wikidata, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2000, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2018, Articles with failed verification from April 2018, Articles needing additional references from May 2018, Articles needing cleanup from November 2018, Wikipedia list cleanup from November 2018, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bade, Klaus J. 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